Desalination and renewable energy, part I: Context: water and energy


Context: Water and energy The problem of fresh water lacking in many areas all over the world and its solution: desalination People have to face with the problem of fresh water lacking in many regions of the world. In 2005, half a billion people lived in the condition of water–scarce and water–stressed . Many of them have to drink contaminated water which is not good to the health. Population growth and the pollution of natural sources of freshwater cause a significant and on-going reduction of clean drinking water. Increasing water demands for agriculture, industry and tourism let the world have to find solutions to this problem. In some areas such as the coastal regions or islands, the desalination techniques were applied to convert seawater or brackish water into freshwater which is useful for drinking, cooking … Fig 1.1. Charts showing portions of total desalination capacity and total number of desalination plant installations worldwide by source water USA and especially … [Read more...]

Optimal management of water pumping and desalination process supplied with intermittent renewable sources

World natural resources of fresh water are constant or even decreasing while the world population continues to grow rapidly and is expected to increase from a current value of 6 billion inhabitants to 9 billion over 2050. This growth is associated with rapid expansion of urban regions, which consume large amounts of fresh water. Population increase and associated changes in lifestyle stress limited water resources even further. Governments and municipalities struggle to secure sufficient fresh water resources for the ever-increasing demand by adopting strict policies for conservation, water reuse, imports, transportation, and desalination. According to the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), one over three peoples globally faces some form of water scarcity; one-fourth of the world population lives in areas where water is physically scarce, and over one billion people live where water is econom`ically scarce, or places where ‘‘water is available in rivers and aquifers, but … [Read more...]

Vietnam’s lychee: food, products, market, policy, and postharvest in the Value Chain Development (VCD)

Fresh Lychee

Lychee is considered to have existed in Viet Nam for a long time. At the foot of Bavi Mountain, wild lychee trees were found by a French scientist in 1942. In 1970 Professor Vu Cong Hau (late director of the Industrial and Fruit Crop Institute) A Vietnamese legend also recounts that one of Vietnamese Kings of the Mai Dynasty once offered lychee fruits, which were regarded as precious fruit of Viet Nam, to the Emperor of China. This evidence partly shows that lychee can be considered as a native of Viet Nam lychee and that the climate of northern Viet Nam, where winter is short, dry and a little bit cold and summer is long and hot with high rainfall and humidity, is quite suitable for the growth of lychee. Cultivation and uses An evergreen tree reaching 10–28 meters (33–92 ft) tall, the lychee bears fleshy fruits that are up to 5 cm long and 4 cm wide (2.0 in × 1.6 in). The outside of the fruit is covered by a pink-red, roughly textured rind that is inedible but easily removed … [Read more...]

Introduction HACCP (Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points)


Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic preventive approach to food safety and pharmaceutical safety that addresses physical, chemical, and biological hazards as a means of prevention rather than finished product inspection. HACCP is used in the food industry to identify potential food safety hazards, so that key actions, known as Critical Control Points (CCP's) can be taken to reduce or eliminate the risk of the hazards being realized. The system is used at all stages of food production and preparation processes including packaging, distribution, etc. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) use mandatory juice, seafood, meat and poultry HACCP programs as an effective approach to food safety and protecting public health. Meat and poultry HACCP systems are regulated by the USDA, while seafood and juice are regulated by the FDA. The use of HACCP is currently voluntary in other food … [Read more...]