Desalination and renewable energy, part I: Context: water and energy

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Context: Water and energy The problem of fresh water lacking in many areas all over the world and its solution: desalination People have to face with the problem of fresh water lacking in many regions of the world. In 2005, half a billion people lived in the condition of water–scarce and water–stressed . Many of them have to drink contaminated water which is not good to the health. Population growth and the pollution of natural sources of freshwater cause a significant and on-going reduction of clean drinking water. Increasing water demands for agriculture, industry and tourism let the world have to find solutions to this problem. In some areas such as the coastal regions or islands, the desalination techniques were applied to convert seawater or brackish water into freshwater which is useful for drinking, cooking … Fig 1.1. Charts showing portions of total desalination capacity and total number of desalination plant installations worldwide by source water USA and especially … [Read more...]

Optimal management of water pumping and desalination process supplied with intermittent renewable sources

World natural resources of fresh water are constant or even decreasing while the world population continues to grow rapidly and is expected to increase from a current value of 6 billion inhabitants to 9 billion over 2050. This growth is associated with rapid expansion of urban regions, which consume large amounts of fresh water. Population increase and associated changes in lifestyle stress limited water resources even further. Governments and municipalities struggle to secure sufficient fresh water resources for the ever-increasing demand by adopting strict policies for conservation, water reuse, imports, transportation, and desalination. According to the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), one over three peoples globally faces some form of water scarcity; one-fourth of the world population lives in areas where water is physically scarce, and over one billion people live where water is econom`ically scarce, or places where ‘‘water is available in rivers and aquifers, but … [Read more...]

Introduction about Review of Desalination system fed by Renewable energy

World natural resources of fresh water are constant or even decreasing while the world population continues to grow rapidly and is expected to increase from a current value of 6 billion inhabitants to 9 billion over 2050. This growth is associated with rapid expansion of urban regions, which consume large amounts of fresh water. Population increase and associated changes in lifestyle stress limited water resources even further. Governments and municipalities struggle to secure sufficient fresh water resources for the ever-increasing demand by adopting strict policies for conservation, water reuse, imports, transportation, and desalination [AND07]. According to the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), one over three peoples globally faces some form of water scarcity; one-fourth of the world population lives in areas where water is physically scarce, and over one billion people live where water is econom`ically scarce, or places where ‘‘water is available in rivers and … [Read more...]

Vietnam’s lychee: food, products, market, policy, and postharvest in the Value Chain Development (VCD)

Fresh Lychee

Lychee is considered to have existed in Viet Nam for a long time. At the foot of Bavi Mountain, wild lychee trees were found by a French scientist in 1942. In 1970 Professor Vu Cong Hau (late director of the Industrial and Fruit Crop Institute) A Vietnamese legend also recounts that one of Vietnamese Kings of the Mai Dynasty once offered lychee fruits, which were regarded as precious fruit of Viet Nam, to the Emperor of China. This evidence partly shows that lychee can be considered as a native of Viet Nam lychee and that the climate of northern Viet Nam, where winter is short, dry and a little bit cold and summer is long and hot with high rainfall and humidity, is quite suitable for the growth of lychee. Cultivation and uses An evergreen tree reaching 10–28 meters (33–92 ft) tall, the lychee bears fleshy fruits that are up to 5 cm long and 4 cm wide (2.0 in × 1.6 in). The outside of the fruit is covered by a pink-red, roughly textured rind that is inedible but easily removed … [Read more...]

Automation system and SCADA in food plant for HACCP assurance

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I. Introduction about food processing and automation system I.1. Background of food processing Food processing is similar to many different kinds of manufacturing. Three main flows can be listed: material flow and energy flow at the input of the process, product flow at the output of the process. The process is combination of some types of basic process and coresponding equipment: Mechanical and hydraulic process Transportation process Thermal process Mass transfer process Reaction process: chemical reaction and biological process The processes are supplied by suitable energy flow from electrical energy (electric network), energy from fossil fuels, biomass energy, renewable energy (renewable energy sources: wind turbine, PV panel ), ... Traditionally, the food process is manipulated by men. The workers in the food plants operate the manufaturing process and machine system by their knwoledge and experience. It is really a hard work to obtain high quality … [Read more...]